Biogeographical History of the Neotropical and Neantarctic Simuliidae (Diptera)
Using the lineages of taxa and their distribution on different areas of endemism, and by cladistic methodology applied to biogeography, we try to define the biotic history of the areas of endemism based on Neotropical and Neantarctic Simuliidae. Using the information of the cladograms of nine Central and South American monophyletic supraspecific taxa of Simuliini and 16 areas of endemism, we perform a Component Analysis with component 1.5, using the assumption 2. A second analysis was made using Biogeographic Parsimony Analysis; the data matrix was analyzed with the program NONA. The cladograms obtained show the possible sequence of historic separation of areas of endemism, evidencing the presence of two large biotas: the austral (Neantarctic) and the tropical (Neotropical), that were maintained in partial isolation. The areas of endemism of the austral biota are: Subantarctic, Central Chile, Patagonian, Puna, Monte and Pampean; those of the tropical biota are: Amazonia, Southeastern Brazil Mountains, Cerrado, Guiana, Caribbean, Yungas, Norandean, Pacific and Mesoamerican Mountains. It was not possible to assign the Desert to any of these biotas. The principal vicariant events that affected the Simuliidae are sea ingressions, the emergence of the Andes and climatic changes.
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